How to take care of the 5 symptoms, 6 major complications, and 7 high-risk groups of pre-diabetes

Table of Contents

“Oh my God! As a result of this physical examination, the doctor said that I may have diabetes! I often hear that the complications of diabetes are terrible, which may lead to blindness or amputation. Is it true?” Diabetes can be said to be one of the most common metabolic syndromes in modern times. 1. Complications after illness will greatly reduce the quality of life. Fortunately, scientists discovered insulin in 1921 and quickly studied the relationship between insulin and diabetes. Only then did they treat countless patients. In fact, as long as you change your lifestyle and follow your doctors Controlling blood sugar with the instructions are given by the author can avoid terrible complications such as blindness or amputation! This dietitian will take you to understand the definition and types of diabetes, the symptoms that need attention in the early stage, the possible complications, the high-risk groups, and how to take care of diabetes!


Definition of diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease of carbohydrate metabolism. Its cause is abnormal insulin secretion in the body. The most obvious symptom is that the blood glucose concentration is often at a high level. After eating, the food will be digested and broken down to produce glucose. At this time, the pancreas will receive a message that the glucose concentration in the blood has risen, and will begin to secrete insulin. Insulin can help glucose enter cells for storage and supply the body with energy for activity. When insulin secretion is insufficient, glucose does not have insulin, the “key” to enter the cell, resulting in the inability to drop blood sugar. The body cannot use sugars, and the cells lack nutrients for a long time, which will cause the patient to be hungry all the time.

In the early stage of the onset, most of them have no symptoms, and usually only found out that they are sick during physical examination. The test will assess fasting blood glucose levels, blood glucose levels after meals, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Insulin resistance, the main cause of type 2 diabetes, can also be detected more accurately using the Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR) index.


3 types of diabetes

According to the reasons for insufficient insulin secretion, diabetes can be divided into three categories

1. Type 1 diabetes 

Most of it is because the autoimmune system is abnormal, and insulin β cells are destroyed and there is no way to secrete insulin. This type of disease develops for many years and must rely on external insulin to control blood sugar for a long time, so it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.

2. Type 2 diabetes

Ninety percent of diabetic patients in Taiwan belong to this category. The main reasons are insulin resistance (cells cannot use insulin) and insufficient insulin secretion, which maintains high blood sugar for a long time. The cause is usually related to lifestyle habits and obesity.

3. Gestational diabetes

It usually appears in the middle and late stages of pregnancy. Pregnant women without a history of diabetes have symptoms of high blood sugar during pregnancy. However, as long as you continue to track your condition during pregnancy, you don’t need to worry too much, and pregnant women usually return to their original state after delivery.

These 5 symptoms may be pre-diabetes

Pre-diabetes will have some obvious symptoms. If you observe these clues, please do a physical examination as soon as possible and follow the doctor’s instructions for treatment.

1. Eat more, get hungry easily

Because the cells cannot absorb sugars, they are always hungry. Even if they eat food, they still can’t improve, but the blood sugar will continue to soar.

2. Drinking and urinating

Due to the state of high blood sugar, the body is in order to eliminate sugar, but too high concentration of sugar will cause the kidney osmotic pressure disorder, and the water needed by the body will also be discharged, causing the patient to urinate frequently and feel thirsty at the same time. Hope More water can dilute blood sugar to achieve balance.

3. Weight loss

Eat and drink more, but lose weight? This is because insulin cannot be fully utilized, body cells cannot take in sugar and nutrients, the brain will release the message of hunger, and the cells in the body will start to break down fat and protein in muscles to convert them into glucose for energy.

4. Easy to fatigue and lethargy

High blood sugar will cause the body to feel a lack of nutrients and oxygen. In order to gain energy, it starts to break down muscles, which reduces the metabolic rate and naturally feels tired.

5. Repeated inflammation of the body

For example, conditions such as urethritis, gum inflammation, etc., or the body is hot, high levels of blood sugar can easily cause body inflammation, and some patients will develop acanthosis nigricans.


The scary thing is not diabetes, but these 6 complications

When the body is in a state of high blood sugar, it triggers an inflammatory response, and the high concentration of glucose travels through the blood throughout the body. These injuries are systemic. After a long-term inflammatory response, the body will begin to produce disease. This is why diabetics must listen to it. The doctor’s instructions to control blood sugar well.

1. Heart disease

 High-concentration blood glucose flows throughout the body, and the heart is the pump of blood, which will definitely pass through the heart. Not only the heart but also the blood vessels will be severely damaged. The possible conditions of blood vessel injury include arterial wall protein glycation, vascular wall damage, or arteriosclerosis and thickening caused by different causes of heart disease.

2. Kidney disease

Many diabetic patients take the road to dialysis. The kidney is an important organ for filtering blood in the body. If the blood contains a large amount of sugars, it can cause inflammation of the kidneys, which may also affect body fluids, endocrine regulation and blood pressure.

3. Retinopathy

The relationship between retinopathy and diabetes is that insulin secretion is insufficient, which leads to increased secretion of growth hormone, which in turn leads to coagulation of red blood cells and platelet aggregation. The blood becomes thicker and the blood flow rate slows down, which may cause microvascular tumors. The tiny blood vessels are more permeable than general blood vessels, and the components in the blood are easier to penetrate, causing retinal edema and inflammation, which can lead to retinal hemorrhage, and even start to hypoxia, leading to severe disease.

4. Fractures

High blood sugar affects bone metabolism due to oxidative stress, making it difficult to create new bones, which will cause bones to become fragile.

5. Neuropathy

Sustained high blood sugar may be caused by the excessive action of mitochondria to produce many reactive oxides, and high sugar content may increase the oxidative pressure in the cell or cause inflammatory damage and damage the cells. The initial symptoms are not obvious. As the damage becomes more severe, the pain and temperature sensation will become less and less sensitive, and then there will be numbness and muscle weakness.

6. Foot ulcers

One in ten diabetic patients have foot problems. This is actually caused by the above-mentioned pathological changes. The nerves at the end of the foot are not sensitive, which can easily cause the feet to be injured. In addition, the blood vessel function is not good, the blood circulation is not good, and the blood is injured. The site is difficult to heal, causing bacterial infections, severe amputation, sepsis, shock and death.

7 ethnic groups at high risk of diabetes


1. Overweight (BMI ≧24), obesity (BMI ≧27), or men’s waist circumference of 90 cm or more, women’s waist circumference of 80 cm or more

2. Have a family history of diabetes

3. High-oil and high-sugar diet

4. Lack of exercise

5. Hypertension (blood pressure over 140/90mmHg)

6. Hyperlipidemia (triglycerides greater than 250 mg/dl, low-density cholesterol greater than 130mg/dl, high-density cholesterol less than 40mg/dl)

7. Have suffered from polycystic ovary or gestational diabetes


How to care for diabetes?


1. Food choice and blood sugar control

The main cause of diabetes is high blood sugar. Therefore, the food selection should be based on low GI, refreshing cooking methods, small meals, and monitoring of blood sugar status to help stabilize.

2. Cultivate exercise habits

Exercise can help blood sugar consumption, help improve diabetes, and strengthen blood vessel function. Need to pay attention to blood sugar changes after exercise, and appropriate sugar supplements to prevent hypoglycemia.

3. Water replenishment

In order to balance blood sugar, there is a lot of water loss in the body, so remember to add more water and consume at least 2000c.c. of water a day.

4. Oral hygiene and skin care

Due to poor repair ability, injuries should be avoided to reduce the risk of infection, and more care should be taken in skin care, especially on easily injured feet. The skin should also be cleaned with a relatively non-irritating neutral cleansing liquid, and the water temperature should not be too high. Diabetes patients are more likely to have an inflammatory reaction than ordinary people, so the chance of periodontal disease is higher, and you should pay attention to the cleanliness of the oral cavity.
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